Technically, the LoRaWAN specification provides seamless interoperability among smart Things. You need not have to perform any complex local installations. Moreover, it provides freedom to the user, developers, and businesses to enable the official roll out of Internet of Things.
The LoRaWAN network architecture is designed using star-of-stars topology. Here, the gateways is a transparent bridge that relays messages between end to end devices. A central network server will work in the backend.
You should note that Gateways are normally connected to the network server via standard IP connections. When it comes to the end devices, they make use of single-hop wireless communication to many gateways.
Generally, all end-point communications are bi-directional. It also provides support for multicast enabling software OTA including distribution of messages in bulk to reduce the impact of on-air communication. The main channel of communication between gateways and
LoRaWAN features a data range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps. The network server manages the data rate and RF output for each end-device in an automated manner using adaptive data rate (ADR) mechanism. This is being done to enhance the battery life of the not only the overall network capacity but also that of the end-devices.
LoRaWAN consists of Bi-directional end-devices (Class A), Bi-directional end-devices with scheduled receive slots (Class B) including Bi-directional end-devices with maximal receive slots (Class C).
In the case of Class B devices, it open extra receives windows at scheduled times. When it comes to the Class C type, it continuously opens receive windows and closed only during transmission.